Friday, February 01, 2013

Addressing Stuckenbruck's Treatment of Greek Pronouns

Loren T. Stuckenbruck, in Angel Veneration and Christology: A Study in Early Judaism and the Christology of the Apocalypse of John (Tubingen: JCB Mohr, 1995),lists a number of biblical passages in which the singular Greek pronoun or third person singular verbs seem problematic.

He apparently concludes that the Lamb is being worshiped alongside God in a "monotheistic framework" when we encounter such usages. But I am not so sure the examples that he provides support his point. Let us examine Revelation 11:15 as a case example:

"The kingdom of the world did become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and HE will rule as king forever."

Grammatically, John's use of BASILEUSEI ("will rule") could refer to God or Christ. Stuckenbruck thinks that it refers to both the Messiah and the Lord Almighty (Jehovah) as a unit. But grammar does not necessitate that we read the text in a Trinitarian manner. Furthermore, the context suggests that it is YHWH (the Father), who will rule as King forever and ever (Rev 11:16-17).

Even if one objects to the NWT's use of the Tetragrammaton in Rev 11:16-17, the surrounding verses still manifestly indicate that KURIE, hO QEOS or hO PANTOKRATWR takes up HIS great power and begins to rule as King through His Messiah, who clearly is not the Lord in this context.


aservantofJehovah said...

daniel9:11,12According to the Greek Septuagint"Moreover all Israel have trangressed thy Law,and have refused to hearken to thy voice;so the curse has come upon us,and the oath that is written in law of Moses the servant of God,because we have sinned against him.And he has confirmed his words,which he spoke against us,and against our judges who judged us by bringing upon us great evils,such as have not happened under the whole heaven,according to what has happened in Jerusalem." Not quite the same thing,I grant,but interesting nonetheless.

Matt13weedhacker said...

Dear Edgar.

It would be interesting to see some of the other examples that 'He' has raised similar to Rev. 11:15.

Interesting use of the third person singluar in Hebrews 1:2:

The NET Bible, New English Translation Bible (1996)

" these last days ((( HE ))) has spoken to us in a Son, whom ((( HE ))) appointed heir of all things, and --- through whom ---((( HE ))) created the world..."

I have been using this verse with Tri{3}nitarians to show how it ( qualifies ) verses such as John 1:3, 10; Col. 1:16; 1st Cor. 8:6(B); by giving additional detail left out in these verses.

Clearly showing another person, i.e., "He", that is the Father, was the one who created "...all things..." thorugh Jesus intermediate agency.

Edgar Foster said...

Hello Matthew13:

For another example of what Stuckenbruck has in mind, see

It's a good point that you make with Heb. 1:2. The antecedent of "he" in verse 2 of Hebrews 1 is the Greek phrase ὁ θεὸς. Even some Trinitarian scholars have recognized that ὁ θεὸς must refer to the Father since ὁ θεὸς speaks ἐν υἱῷὃν.

Best regards,