Monday, April 29, 2024

Language and the Mind (Richard Restak)

"Language allows us to convey our emotions, to share ideas, to create fresh forms of expression, and to communicate our most intimate thoughts. Without language the very notion of human civilization would be unthinkable. It is not only confirmation of the mind within us; the need to communicate with other humans through language seems as fundamental as the existence of the mind itself" (Richard Restak, The Mind, page 197).

Source: Richard Restak, The Mind. Bantam, NY: 1988.

Compare Psalm 139:14. 

Restak is a neurologist and neuropsychiatrist (born in 1942). 

Titus 2:12 (Divine Χάρις teaches "us")

Greek (WH): παιδεύουσα ἡμᾶς, ἵνα ἀρνησάμενοι τὴν ἀσέβειαν καὶ τὰς κοσμικὰς ἐπιθυμίας σωφρόνως καὶ δικαίως καὶ εὐσεβῶς ζήσωμεν ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι,

Our text begins with the present active participle nominative singular feminine form of the verb παιδεύω + the accusative plural first person of ἡμεῖς: translate "teaching us."

Raymond F. Collins points out that it is ἡ χάρις τοῦ Θεοῦ that has appeared to instruct "us" (i.e., Christians); see Titus 2:11 and note the use of an explanatory γὰρ there. Collins writes:

"Now the Pastor makes reference to the saving beneficence of God. The 'beneficence' or 'grace' (he charis) about which he writes is not grace in the Pauline sense, that is, the grace of God that justifies; rather, the word is to be taken in its usual Hellenistic sense of 'favor' or 'beneficence.' In the Pastor’s world the granting of favors was often associated with royal 'appearances' ” (1-2 Timothy and Titus in the NTL Series, page 349).

I personally don't find Collins' take on Χάρις to be all that convincing. Granted, looking at ancient royal appearances or "divine" visits is fair game for trying to determine a word's semantic range, but the immediate literary context and normal usage of the word must have some influence on how we understand Χάρις

BDAG makes these comments about this particular use of Χάρις:

— χ. to denote beneficent dispensations of the emperor: OGI 669, 44 [I a.d.]; BGU 19 I, 21 [II a.d.] χάρ. τοῦ θεοῦ Αὐτοκράτορος; 1085 II, 4) and of Christ, who give (undeserved) gifts to people; God: δικαιούμενοι δωρεὰν τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι Ro 3:24. Cp. 5:15a, 20f; 6:1; 11:5 (ἐκλογή 1), 6abc; Gal 1:15 (διά A 3e); Eph 1:6f (KKuhn, NTS 7, ’61, 337 [reff. to Qumran lit.]); 2:5, 7, 8; cp. Pol 1:3; 2 Th 1:12; 2:16; 2 Ti 1:9; Tit 2:11 (ἡ χάρ. τοῦ θεοῦ σωτήριος; s. Dibelius, Hdb. exc. after Tit 2:14); 3:7; Hb 2:9 (χωρίς 2aα); 4:16a (DdeSilva, JBL 115, ’96, 100–103); 1 Cl 50:3; ISm 9:2; IPol 7:3. ἐν χάρ[ιτι θεοῦ] AcPl Ha 7, 23 (restoration uncertain). κατὰ χάριν as a favor, out of goodwill (cp. Pla., Leg. 740c; schol. on Soph., Oed. Col. 1751 p. 468 Papag.) Ro 4:4 (opp. κατὰ ὀφείλημα), 16.—The beneficence or favor of Christ: διὰ τῆς χάριτος τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ πιστεύομεν σωθῆναι Ac 15:11. Cp. Ro 5:15b; 2 Cor 8:9; 1 Ti 1:14; IPhld 8:1. On Ac 2:47 in this sense s. TAnderson, NTS 34, ’88, 604–10.

Compare 2 Timothy 1:9; Titus 3:5-7. Note also the goal of divine instruction that occurs via Χάρις manifested through Christ: ἵνα ἀρνησάμενοι τὴν ἀσέβειαν καὶ τὰς κοσμικὰς ἐπιθυμίας σωφρόνως καὶ δικαίως καὶ εὐσεβῶς ζήσωμεν ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι.

Friday, April 26, 2024

Hebrews 7:16 (Rogers and Rogers Screenshot)

Greek: ὃς οὐ κατὰ νόμον ἐντολῆς σαρκίνης γέγονεν ἀλλὰ κατὰ δύναμιν ζωῆς ἀκαταλύτου:

Wednesday, April 24, 2024

What Did the Ancient People of Israel Eat? (A Quote from Nathan MacDonald)

"There is a vast amount of nonwritten archaeological evidence that provides insight into the diet of the ancient Israelites. A number of the structures that have survived from ancient Israel were used for the production, storage, and preparation of food. Wine and olive presses, storage rooms, and ovens have been found at Iron Age sites throughout Israel. These remains of agricultural installations and storage facilities provide evidence of land use and can give some idea of the level of food production. Food is not only prepared and consumed: that which cannot be digested has to be disposed of. At every archaeological dig large numbers of animal bones are excavated. These provide evidence not only of meat consumption, but also of the nature of the rural economy. The ratio of sheep bones to cattle bones can indicate whether a community was primarily pastoral or agricultural, since cattle were primarily kept for traction rather than milk production. Unfortunately, the sheer quantity of animal bones seems to have prevented anything more than ad hoc attempts at synthesis of the accumulated data."

Nathan MacDonald. What Did the Ancient Israelites Eat?: Diet in Biblical Times (Kindle Locations 174-179). Kindle Edition

Monday, April 22, 2024

Friday, April 19, 2024

Occurrences of διαθήκη in Hebrews

Hebrews 7:22-κατὰ τοσοῦτο καὶ κρείττονος διαθήκης γέγονεν ἔγγυος Ἰησοῦς.

Hebrews 8:6-νῦν δὲ διαφορωτέρας τέτυχεν λειτουργίας, ὅσῳ καὶ κρείττονός ἐστιν διαθήκης μεσίτης, ἥτις ἐπὶ κρείττοσιν ἐπαγγελίαις νενομοθέτηται.

Hebrews 8:8-μεμφόμενος γὰρ αὐτοὺς λέγει Ἰδοὺ ἡμέραι ἔρχονται, λέγει Κύριος, καὶ συντελέσω ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον Ἰούδα διαθήκην καινήν,

Hebrews 8:9-οὐ κατὰ τὴν διαθήκην ἣν ἐποίησα τοῖς πατράσιν αὐτῶν ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐπιλαβομένου μου τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν ἐξαγαγεῖν αὐτοὺς ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, ὅτι αὐτοὶ οὐκ ἐνέμειναν ἐν τῇ διαθήκῃ μου, κἀγὼ ἠμέλησα αὐτῶν, λέγει Κύριος.

Hebrews 810-ὅτι αὕτη ἡ διαθήκη ἣν διαθήσομαι τῷ οἴκῳ Ἰσραήλ μετὰ τὰς ἡμέρας ἐκείνας, λέγει Κύριος, διδοὺς νόμους μου εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν ἐπιγράψω αὐτούς, καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς θεόν καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μοι εἰς λαόν.

Hebrews 9:4-χρυσοῦν ἔχουσα θυμιατήριον καὶ τὴν κιβωτὸν τῆς διαθήκης περικεκαλυμμένην πάντοθεν χρυσίῳ, ἐν ᾗ στάμνος χρυσῆ ἔχουσα τὸ μάννα καὶ ἡ ῥάβδος Ἀαρὼν ἡ βλαστήσασα καὶ αἱ πλάκες τῆς διαθήκης,

Hebrews 9:15-Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο διαθήκης καινῆς μεσίτης ἐστίν, ὅπως θανάτου γενομένου εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῶν ἐπὶ τῇ πρώτῃ διαθήκῃ παραβάσεων τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν λάβωσιν οἱ κεκλημένοι τῆς αἰωνίου κληρονομίας.

Hebrews 9:16-ὅπου γὰρ διαθήκη, θάνατον ἀνάγκη φέρεσθαι τοῦ διαθεμένου·

Hebrews 9:17- διαθήκη γὰρ ἐπὶ νεκροῖς βεβαία, ἐπεὶ μὴ τότε ἰσχύει ὅτε ζῇ ὁ διαθέμενος.

Hebrews 9:20-λέγων Τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης ἧς ἐνετείλατο πρὸς ὑμᾶς ὁ θεός·

Hebrews 10:16-Αὕτη ἡ διαθήκη ἣν διαθήσομαι πρὸς αὐτούς μετὰ τὰς ἡμέρας ἐκείνας, λέγει Κύριος, διδοὺς νόμους μου ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν ἐπιγράψω αὐτούς,

Hebrews 10:29-πόσῳ δοκεῖτε χείρονος ἀξιωθήσεται τιμωρίας ὁ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ καταπατήσας, καὶ τὸ αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης κοινὸν ἡγησάμενος ἐν ᾧ ἡγιάσθη, καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς χάριτος ἐνυβρίσας.

Hebrews 12:24-καὶ διαθήκης νέας μεσίτῃ Ἰησοῦ, καὶ αἵματι ῥαντισμοῦ κρεῖττον λαλοῦντι παρὰ τὸν Ἅβελ.

Hebrews 13:20-Ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς εἰρήνης, ὁ ἀναγαγὼν ἐκ νεκρῶν τὸν ποιμένα τῶν προβάτων τὸν μέγαν ἐν αἵματι διαθήκης αἰωνίου, τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν,

Over half of the thirty NT occurrences of διαθήκη appear in Hebrews. Furthermore, there are numerous books and journal articles dealing with covenant theology/semantics in Hebrews: I will list a couple.

Thursday, April 18, 2024

Double Predestination and A Loving God? John (Jean) Calvin

About ten years ago, someone asked me about Jean Calvin. They were trying to wrap their heads around the fact that he believed in "double predestination" and simultaneously thought "God is love" (1 John 4:8).

Please let Calvin himself explain:

"I again ask how it is that the fall of Adam involves so many nations with their infant children in eternal death without remedy unless that it so seemed meet to God? Here the most loquacious tongues must be dumb. The decree, I admit, is, dreadful; and yet it is impossible to deny that God foreknow what the end of man was to be before he made him, and foreknew, because he had so ordained by his decree. Should any one here inveigh against the prescience of God, he does it rashly and unadvisedly. For why, pray, should it be made a charge against the heavenly Judge, that he was not ignorant of what was to happen?"

"Nor ought it to seem absurd when I say, that God not only foresaw the fall of the first man, and in him the ruin of his posterity; but also at his own pleasure arranged it. For as it belongs to his wisdom to foreknow all future events, so it belongs to his power to rule and govern them by his hand."

See Institutes of the Christian Religion 3.23.7

Bildad in Job 25-The Distortion of Truth

In Job 25, Bildad speaks the truth in a sense, but he distorts matters when he speaks to Job or concerning him: Job 25:6 while true in the abstract must have felt like the pangs of a sword to Job. The rhetorical questions with presupposed negative answers in Job 25:4 are worth quoting: "How then can a mortal be righteous before God? How can one born of woman be pure?" (NIV)

Rebecca R. Clark writes:

Finally, Bildad asks, “How then can a mortal be righteous before God? How can one born of woman be pure?” (25:4).115 Ash proposes, “This is the answer of human religion. But it is also the satan’s answer.”116 Unbeknownst to Job’s friends, in aiming to proclaim the truth about God, they are spokesmen of the satan.117 Although the satan is not present in the remainder of the narrative, he continues to be voiced.



Monday, April 15, 2024

Psalm 51:5 (Guilt or Iniquity?)

Hebrew (Leningrad Codex): הֵן־בְּעָוֹ֥ון חֹולָ֑לְתִּי וּ֝בְחֵ֗טְא יֶֽחֱמַ֥תְנִי אִמִּֽי׃

NET: "Look, I was guilty of sin from birth, a sinner the moment my mother conceived me."

ESV: "
Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me."

The Hebrew word avon sometimes bears the meaning "guilt," but it may also denote iniquity or punishment for iniquity. 

Compare Jeremiah 2:22 (NET), but see the translation's notes. Cf. Romans 7:18-20. BDB makes the point that it's hard at times to distinguish the concept of guilt from iniquity when it comes to the Hebrew avon. NWT 2013 opts for the "guilty" aspect of the word.

Sunday, April 14, 2024

God Is A Necessary Being

A student once asked me the question that a lot of people wonder about: who made God? A few scriptures directly address this question, but I referenced Psalm 90:2 in my answer to the student and one might also consider 1 Timothy 1:17. Furthermore, I tried to reason with her concerning the difficulty of understanding how God could have always existed without being created by invoking concepts in physics that are hard to understand (i.e., they are comparable to understanding God's necessary existence). For example, most people do not comprehend the math for relativity theory. But two arguments for God's existence that seem compelling to me are (1) the argument from possibility and necessity or Aquinas' third way; (2) the need to avoid an infinite regress. 

Regarding number (1), it seems reasonable to suppose that "if all things possibly fail to exist at some time then possibly there is a time when nothing exists" (Robert E. Maydole).
If it's logically possible that nothing finite once existed, then it is logically possible that if non-existent things did come to have actual existence instead of just potential existence, then a necessary being (one who exists without any other entity sustaining the being's existence) brought once non-existent things into existence. Nevertheless, I think Aquinas' third way (proof) only works if one modalizes it like Maydole does.

But my student objects that we can't see God or empirically detect him like we are capable of measuring or detecting physical entities (e.g. the wind, atoms, and gravity). While I grant this point, it does not seem that the objection is fatal to belief in God. Many things in physics are less than certain (to understate the matter) and science has even predicted the existence of some things that were not detected at the time, for instance, in chemistry, cosmology and with string theory. There are still some things that science has never detected but these things are widely thought to exist. Besides, to suppose that we must see/hear something (etc.) to believe it exists is a metaphysical position or an article of faith: the proposition itself is not a fact.

Quite frankly, it takes more faith to believe this universe arose from absolute nothingness without God than it does to believe in God, the ens realissimum and ens necessarius. Peter van Inwagen has a great point about the odds of the universe coming into existence from absolutely nothing, including no God. Try 0% on for size.

Saturday, April 13, 2024

1 Corinthians 11:27 (A Brief Comment)

Greek: ὥστε ὃς ἂν ἐσθίῃ τὸν ἄρτον ἢ πίνῃ τὸ ποτήριον τοῦ κυρίου ἀναξίως, ἔνοχος ἔσται τοῦ σώματος καὶ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ κυρίου.

I've been wanting to address this verse because someone recently told me that they thought Jehovah would never forgive a person who ate the bread during the Memorial (Lord's evening supper) or who drank the cup, but who was not anointed. But I assured them that while it is a serious thing to partake of the bread and wine, there are at least two things to consider.

1) When Paul spoke of partaking "unworthily," whom was he referencing? At the time 1 Corinthians was written, all Christians shared the "one hope" (Ephesians 4:5) and they were anointed with God's holy spirit through the Lord Jesus. Hence, Paul likely was not telling them to make sure they were children of God: the spirit already imparted that knowledge to them. Rather, per the context, his point involved how they lived each day and their perspective towards the holy bread and the cup of wine.

2) While Jehovah promises to recompense inveterate sinners and those who utterly disrespect sacred things, if a person genuinely commits an error respecting the bread and the cup, would God not extend mercy to one who sinned unintentionally or who later realized his/her error? The Bible assures us that he would (Psalm 86:5).

Jehovah forgave David, Manasseh and Saul of Tarsus. Why would he not forgive a person who wrongly partook of the emblems, but maybe had extenuating circumstances that account for his/her actions.

Wednesday, April 10, 2024

Brief Notes from Donald Bloesch's "God the Almighty"

Donald G. Bloesch. God the Almighty: Power, Wisdom, Holiness, Love. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1995. 

Bloesch lived from 1928-2010. He was an evangelical theologian and prolific writer. 

"The God of the Bible cannot be described in univocal language, only by means of analogy, metaphor and simile." (page 32). 

"The God of philosophy is capable of being thought and thereby mastered. The God of theology remains hidden and inscrutable until he makes himself known" (p. 32).

God is "being-in-person" (32).

"How God accomplishes his purposes in conjunction with human effort and striving is a mystery that lies beyond human comprehension. Like creation and redemption, providence is a mystery open only to faith" (116).

Bloesch considers both determinism and indeterminism to be heresies (ibid.).

On pages 116-117, he poses some interesting questions about God's putative relationship to creatures and time.

Tuesday, April 09, 2024

How to Say "battle ally" in Greek

The word σύμμαχος is technically an adjective of sorts (cf. LSJ Greek-English Lexicon) meaning "allied with" someone in battle. But at times, I have used it as a substantive with the meaning "battle ally," a usage that appears in ancient Greek literature (s.v. LSJ). The plural substantival nominative form is οἱ σύμμαχοι.

Monday, April 08, 2024

Psalm 1:2 and the Torah

Latin Vulgate: Sed in lege Domini voluntas eius et in lege eius meditabitur die ac nocte (Psalm 1:2).

Douay-Rheims Translation: "But his will is in the law of the Lord, and on his law he shall meditate day and night."

Amplified Bible: "But his delight and desire are in the law of the Lord, and on His law (the precepts, the instructions, the teachings of God) he habitually meditates (ponders and studies) by day and by night."

ASV: "But his delight is in the law of Jehovah; And on his law doth he meditate day and night."

The Cambridge History of the Bible 
states that ancient Judaism emphasized 'a renewed study of the Torah' after the book of Deuteronomy was written. We then read: "It [the Torah] was to be the Book of Meditation for every pious Jew, great and humble. Believed in its time to offer the most complete and up-to-date version of the 'Mosaic' code, it was to be the daily vade mecum of the king" (1:200). This information was written by G. Vermes, Reader of Jewish Studies at Oxford University during the year 1970.

Vermes then cites Deut. 17:18-19 where 
the King rather than a Levite priest is exhorted to make a copy of the Law and "read in it all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear the LORD [YHWH] his God, by keeping all the words of this law and these statutes, and doing them."

Compare Joshua 1:7-8.

But the CHOB does not stop there. It shows that the 
previously mentioned hortatory dicta were "extended to all Israel" as shown by Ps. 1:2 and 1 QS VI, 6-7. It was only later that "this wide preoccupation with the Bible created a demand for authoritative interpreters, and a particular class of men emerged from the ranks of priests and Levites whose sole business was professional exegesis." See Ecclesiasticus 39:1-8 and Neh. 8:1-8. 

Consult Pirke Aboth and Jub. 23:26 as well (cf. Malachi 2:7). Jub. 23:26 foretold that "In those days, children shall begin to study the laws and to seek the commandments, and to return to the path of righteousness." This text and others like it show that the ancient rabbis thought everyone, yes even children, should zealously study the Torah.

John Chrysostom: "
I also always entreat you, and do not cease entreating you, not only to pay attention here to what I say, but also when you are at home, to persevere continually in reading the divine Scriptures."

Friday, April 05, 2024

Asimov and the Marvelous Atom

"Because quantum theory deals with things so far removed from what we are used to in ordinary life, scientists speak of 'quantum weirdness.' There are aspects about it that seem so paradoxical that scientists have simply not managed to agree on what it all means. Perhaps someday, new discoveries, new concepts, new thoughts will clarify what seems now to be hopelessly mysterious" (Isaac Asimov).

Asimov wrote these words in the book Atom: Journey Across the Subatomic Cosmos, published in 1991, page 121.

Has his desire come to fruition?

See Romans 1:20; Revelation 4:11

Are You Ready to Obey, Even When Directions Are Hard to Understand? (Modified Talk)

                                            Based on Ezra 5 and 6

From time to time, it's good to ask ourselves whether we are "ready to obey" (James 3:17) even when the direction given is hard for us to understand. In going over this material for the talk, it's a question that I pondered for myself and my household.

When we think back to Israel's situation in the 6th century BCE, we know they experienced the fall of Babylon in 539 BCE by the Medes and Persians. Then Cyrus gave the decree that allowed Jehovah's people to repatriate Judah and start building the second temple in Jerusalem. Of course, there was a delay in building the temple because some Israelites got diverted by material interests; moreover, the Persians imposed a ban on the work in the days of King Artaxerxes.

Nevertheless, please notice how Ezra 5:1-2 describes the action taken by faithful Israelites who returned to Judah.

(After reading)

Two men who took the lead in the trip back to Babylon and the rebuilding work were Governor Zerubbabel and High Priest Jeshua. Yet there was one problem even in 520 BCE.

Due to the crafty activity of some avid Persian opposers, a ban was still imposed on the building work in Jerusalem. Hence, what would the faithful Israelites do? Would they prove to be readily obedient despite the ban? After all, it must have been difficult for them to understand how they were supposed to keep working with a ban in place.

However, let's see what Ezra 5:3, 17 reveals.

So what happened? Instead of being deterred by the opposers, the Israelites reminded their opponents of Cyrus' decree. This was a manifestation of wisdom on their part since the wrong response could have hindered the temple-building work.

Nevertheless, it was no coincidence that the work continued. If we remember from the opening part of Ezra, Jehovah initially stirred the heart of King Cyrus to put this decree into effect and now we see Jehovah further directing the work in this part of Ezra.

What was the outcome of the Israelites acting with tactfulness and relying on Jehovah's direction? Please turn with me to Ezra 6:7-8.

We can see Jehovah's hand at work in the ancient temple-building process. Not only were God's people allowed to continue working but King Darius gave the order that "From the royal treasury, from the tax collected in the region Beyond the River, the temple-building expenses" were to be "promptly given" to the builders so that they could "continue without interruption." What a blessing Israel received since the nation readily obeyed Jehovah even when the command seemed hard to understand, and we know the temple was eventually completed in 515 BCE all to Jehovah's praise.

Picture and application:

Natural disasters (fire, hurricanes), pandemic, and the building of our local Kingdom Hall.

As we contemplate future events and the precious promises that Jehovah has given us, may all of us be ready to obey as we keep busy in theocratic work.

Tuesday, April 02, 2024

Colossians 2:9 and πλήρωμα τῆς θεότητος

Here is something I wrote long ago, which may need to be amended in spots. In his capacity as a spirit creature, the πλήρωμα τῆς  θεότητος resides in Christ. The use of θεότητος, however, does not mean that Christ is ὁ παντοκράτωρ: he simply possesses "divinity" but not in the strict sense of the word like Almighty God does.

Trinitarians have doubted this understanding of θεότητος and have tried to draw a sharp line between θεότητος and "divinity" in the less strict sense. The fallacy of this argument is clearly demonstrated by a cursory perusal of Jerome's Latin Vulgate where the Vulgate at Col. 2:9 uses the Latin word dīvīnitātis (genitive singular of dīvīnitās) to render θεότητος. Dīvīnitās is the abstract Latin word for "divinity" as attested by the speeches and writings of Constantine (See Michael Grant's Constantine The Great).

Anointed Christians will one day possess the "divine nature"; they will see God and be like unto Him. (2 Pet. 1:4; 1 John 3:2). Therefore, divinity is not per se synonymous with or equivalent to being God. I thereby conclude that Col. 2:9 does not teach that Christ possesses a fleshly body now, nor is he coequal with God.

See also Nash, H. S. “Θειότης: Θεότης, Rom. 1. 20; Col. 2. 9.” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1899, pp. 1–34. JSTOR, Accessed 3 Apr. 2024.

Monday, April 01, 2024

Words of the Month (April 2024)

1. Etymological origin of rigmarole:

"alteration of obsolete 'ragman roll' (long list, catalog)

First Known Use: circa 1736"

Thanks, M-W!

2. Anosognosia.

Neuroscientist Vilayanur S. Ramachandran describes this phenomenon as a "curious disorder" that entails being unable to determine whether one's left arm or leg is paralyzed (Phantoms in the Brain, p. 128). The French neurologist Joseph Francois Babinski evidently coined this term after he observed it clinically in 1908.

"The term anosognosia now more broadly refers to a neurologically based denial of illness and unawareness of disability, not limited to patients with hemiplegia."

(Taken from

The etymology of anosognosia is ancient Greek, coming from nosos + gnosis.

Both of the next words are German terms:

3. Zeitschrift-"periodical, journal, magazine."

4. Wirkungsgeschichte-"historical consequences" or "reception history."