Greek: ἐξαλείψας τὸ καθ' ἡμῶν χειρόγραφον τοῖς δόγμασιν ὃ ἦν ὑπεναντίον ἡμῖν, καὶ αὐτὸ ἦρκεν ἐκ τοῦ μέσου προσηλώσας αὐτὸ τῷ σταυρῷ· (WH)
A number of scholars associate this verse with the condemnation that emanated from the Mosaic Law. This post is meant to be brief, by no means comprehensive or exhaustive, but I think there's good reason to understand Col. 2:14 in this way.
1) Compare Eph. 2:15: "when he nullified in his flesh the law of commandments in decrees. He did this to create in himself one new man out of two, thus making peace" (NET)
2) NET note for Col. 2:14: tn On the translation of χειρόγραφον (ceirografon), see BDAG 1083 s.v. which refers to it as “a certificate of indebtedness.”
3) Lot of information here: http://www.preceptaustin.org/colossians_214-151
I don't necessarily endorse all written at preceptaustin.org.
See Col. 2:20ff.
5) BDAG lists 3 Macc 1:3; Philo, Gig. 52; Leg. All. 1.54; 55 and Josephus C. Ap. 1.42 as instances of the Greek DOGMA being used to reference the Mosaic Law. See BDAG, page 254.
For more information about dogma, see https://fosterheologicalreflections.blogspot.com/2014/12/dogmata-and-early-apostolic-authority.html